Welcome to the Wefugees Community and thank you for reaching out to us.
Your story is still not very clear to me. On the one hand, you will most likely not find youself in an asylum procedure without applying for asylum. There might have been some misunderstanding also between you and your lawyer? On the other hand, having a German child is not per se a criteria to be excluded from international protection. However, it is very good that you took care of the acknowledgement of the fatherhood ("Vaterschaftsanerkennung") and the declaration of custody ("Sorgerechtserklärung") already. You may want to apply for a residence permit according to Section 28 of the German Residence Law as father of a German child. Please contact your lawyer regarding the application (as far as I know you need to prove your identity/provide a passport) and also in terms of your fears for deportation (which in turn would be more unlikely without holding a passport). Are you currently holding a Duldung?
All the best,