It certainly depends upon your homecountry, your kind of refugee status. And the kind of staying permit you have here. As long as you have an Aufenthaltserlaubnis, you might travel to your homecountry, but with this you risk not getting back to germany or at least your Aufenthaltserlaubnis not being prolonged anymore.
When you have a status called "Niederlassungserlaubnis", as far as I know, they don't check anymore for prolongation (as long as you haven't been away from germany for more than 6 months), it always goes as long as your passport. So you could visit your home country, but still you are a citizen of this country and might be subject to persecution there again.
You might only safely go, if you changed nationality to German. This is possible in the earliest cases after 8 years of having Aufenthaltserlaubnis or Niederlassungserlaubnis.
*** This is just as far as I'm informed, I am not a lawyer and cannot give a guarantee on legal advice***