Welcome to the Wefugees Community and thank you for sharing your situation with us.
I would like to recommend you to get in contact with a migration/asylum counselling office in your region. I am sure they can support you in contacting the BAMF and follow the procedure. Just let us know if you need help in finding a respective office close to your current location. Maybe the BAMF registered a wrong address and can not locate you for the time being. It is important that they can always reach you.
Regarding your second question: There is no specific timeline for the asylum procedure and the duration is also highly varying from institution to institution, city to city and case to case. But in this matter it makes sense as well to contact local experts in a counselling office who are most of the times more experienced and familiar with the local specialties and processes.
As I said, we would be happy to make some research/provide contact details of counselling institutions.
All the best,