Welcome to the Wefugees community and thank you for sharing your situation with us!
Your situation sounds indeed quite complicated and I can also recommend, to reach out to a migration/refugee counselling office. On this website you find a list of numerous offices in Hessen.
In general, as you are mother of a German child, you will be entitled to get a residence permit according to section 28 of the residence law (§28 Abs.1 Nr.3).
Trying to understand your situation, a few questions and difficulties come up. First of all, me personally don't know a case, in which people got punished because they had left the camp. If you applied for asylum already (which I also doubt, as there is no BAMF office in Köln and they must have invited you i.e. to Bonn for an application), they probably stopped the case according to §33 AsylG. If you would return to Köln and say "I want to continue my application", the authorities would probably take it on again.
Secondly, I also don't understand what the lawyer is doing since more than 8 months. As you must have received a receipt in exchange for your passport, it can not be that difficult to get it back.
The most important thing, I also find it not responsible at all, to take you out of the camp without a plan. In general, you would have been entitled to get social benefits and most importantly, a health insurance! Is the baby also not insured or is it a member of the father's family insurance? As you could not provide any passport to the "Standesamt", the child probably also has a "Auszug aus dem Geburtenregister" and no birth certificate, right?
However, I will link two of our wonderful experts here. @mbe-on_Zsigó or @mbeon-Ruth, can you give some advice/recommendations to Rachel?
All the best,