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Regarding your questions about the asylum procedure in Germany:
1. Duration of the asylum procedure: In 2018, the average time of procedures at the BAMF (the responsible authority for examining your asylum application) was around 8 months. Since it is an average time, the duration in your case of course can vary. But if after 6 months you haven´t received an answer from BAMF you can file an offical request and BAMF has to notify you when the decision is likely to be taken.
You can find more information about the asylum procedure in Germany on this website - check the latest update 2019. It is very detailed and contains a lot of information:
2. Travelling with a refugee status: During the asylum procedure you usually can´t travel. If you receive a refugee status you can travel to almost all states within the EU (all the so called Schengen-States) for up to 90 days within a time period of 180 days.
3. Studying as a refugee: You can study in Germany while you are still in the asylum procedure as well as if you receive a refugee status. You apply at the university directly. You just have to check if your school degree matches the prerequisites. You can do this on this website. You might also need proof of German language skills - depending on what you want to study. The main problem with studying during the asylum procedure could be the finances.
4. Working in Germany as a refugee: Unfortunately there has been a law change just recently that doesn´t make it that easy anymore to work during the asylum procedure. As a general rule the German law states that as long as you have to live in a refugee shelter/reception facility (Aufnahmeeinrichtung) you can´t work. And you generally have to live in a refugee shelter until your asylum procedure is finished. But there are a lot of exceptions to this rules. For example that under certain conditions it is possible to make a request for approval to work after three months if you have found a job. After you got recognized as a refugee you can work of course.
5. Housing and location: If you apply for asylum after arriving in Germany you will be distributed within Germany after a quota (so called Königsteiner Schlüssel) and will be assigned to a reception facility where you are supposed to stay during your asylum procedure (see the paragraph above). If you received a refugee status you as well will be assigned to a special city of district within Germany for a period of 3 years (in general the same area where you stayed for your asylum procedure). But if you find a job or start a study at another place it is possible to change your place of residence.
If you want to start studying in Germany there might also be the possibility for you to come to Germany via a study visa. I will link you a website that provides further information about this:
I hope this answer was helpful! Please don´t hesitate getting back to the Wefugee Community if you have further questions!
All the best
Note: Please keep in mind that we can´t provide qualified legal advice via the internet and that any information given can´t replace such legal advice.