Nice to see that you are using the platform so actively.
As for your question, I believe that wanting to learn German and having been accepted by Paderborn University would normally be viewed as sufficient reasons to cancel the so called "Wohnsitzauflage" (which applies to recognized asylum seekers or refugees) and enable an Umverteilung.
However, it is very likely that in your case the Antrag has been denied due to your rejected asylum claim. I understand that this makes you upset and it is hard to say what reasons brought about the positive BAMF decisions for your friends and not for you.
The difference in your case seems to be the "residence obligation" (Residenzpflicht) that applies to people who are still in the middle of asylum procedures, in contrast to the "residence rule" (Wohnsitzauflage). As I understand it, the right to change the place of residence only applies to people with said residence rule, and also only in some cases:
- "No restrictions on the freedom of movement within Germany exist for refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection. They can travel at any time to any destination within Germany, without having to ask for permission by the authorities, in contrast to the so-called “residence obligation” which applies to asylum seekers during the early stages of the procedure (see Reception Conditions: Freedom of Movement).
- "However, since August 2016, refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are generally obliged to take up their place of residence within the Federal State in which their asylum procedures have been conducted. This has been regulated by the newly introduced “residence rule” of Section 12a of the Residence Act.
- "The obligation to live in a certain Federal State or in a certain municipality remains in force for a maximum period of three years, but it can be lifted for certain reasons e.g. for family-related reasons or for education and employment purposes.
- "The regulation of Section 12a of the Residence Act only applies to beneficiaries of protection who have been granted a residence permit based on protection status at a date from 1 January 2016 onwards. The residence rule shall not apply if a beneficiary of protection (or one of his or her family members) can take up a job in another place, if this job provides for a sufficient income to cover the cost of living. It also has to be lifted, if a beneficiary of protection takes up vocational training or university education in another place. Furthermore, the rule shall not apply if family members (spouses, registered partners or minor children) live in another place.3
- "According to the official explanatory memorandum, the residence rule is supposed to promote sustainable integration by preventing segregation of communities."
To apply/ask for an Umverteilung at your responsible Ausländerbehörde is the only legal way to move without risking a fine or penalty.
Nevertheless, I think it might be best to talk to a legal advice center or a lawyer about your situation. I've read that you can appeal against their decision regarding the denied Umverteilung. If you feel comfortable sharing the information -where do you live? Once you let me know, I can research some support centers in your area.
All the best,