Welcome back to the Wefugees Community.
I am sorry to hear about your struggles. There is no general answer to your question though. Whether a residence permit can be extended without a passport depends on the individual situation and the residence permit. A recognized refugee or a person with Subsidiary protection, for instance, shouldn’t face difficulties to extend the residence permit without a valid passport. This, unfortunately, doesn’t apply for people who came to Germany i.e. in a family reunification procedure. Here you can find an interesting article on this issue.
In any case, I recommend to contact the immigration office directly and to explain them your situation. You may also discuss your case in a migration counseling office.
All the best,