When you registered with the immigration autrhorities (Ausländeramt), did they issue you with a document (called a Fiktionsbescheinigung) confirming you have applied for paragraph 24? If you have this document, you are entitled to work and get financial assistance from the welfare office (Jobcenter).
The Ausländeramt is obliged to process your application and assess whether you are entitled to a permit according to paragraph 24. If you had a temporary residence permit for the Ukraine, then you are entitled to a permit in Germany if you cannot safely permanently return to Turkey. The Ausländeramt has to examine your inidividual case and you have the opportunity to present any evidence as to why such a return is for you not possible. The office should then give you a written decision. If they refuse to issue you with a permit, you can appeal this decision.
If the office refuges to process your application, then there is the option after three months of inaction to lodge a lawsuit (Untätigkeitsklage). For immediate action an emergency appeal (Eilantrag) can be made with the local administrative court. However, for both of these options you would first need legal advice as to the potential success of such an action.
As for your friends, are they all non-Ukrainians who lived in Ukraine with a temporary residence permit there? And have they all been issued with a reisdence permit (in a credit card type format) or the paper called a Fiktionsbescheinigung?
Here is some additional information: