Thank you for getting back to me with more information on your case.
Could you please clarify the status of your mother? Before, you mentioned she is a refugee in Germany and has been living here for three years. Is that correct?
As a 17-year old (unmarried) minor, you are eligible to receive the same protection as your mother - asylum, refugee protection, or subsidiary protection.
You can find an explanation of the different protection forms here: http://www.bamf.de/EN/Fluechtlingsschutz/AblaufAsylv/Schutzformen/schutzformen-node.html
This is information from the BAMF for unaccompanied minors in Germany:
"The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) has specially trained officers for unaccompanied minors who are responsible for ensuring that the age and child-specific needs of unaccompanied minors are taken into account when interviews are conducted in the asylum procedure and when the decision on the application for asylum is taken. The foreigners authorities generally grant exceptional permission to stay (so-called "Duldung") – provided the relevant conditions are fulfilled – which can lead to a longer stay if the unaccompanied minors manage, for instance, to integrate well into the German way of life and manage to complete school education or vocational training. This is where the Youth Welfare Service can offer a wide range of assistance and support..."
Source (page 5): https://www.bamf.de/SharedDocs/Anlagen/EN/Publikationen/EMN/Studien/wp60-emn-minderjaehrige-in-deutschland.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
On page 14-15, it is states that the officials you notify about wanting to claim asylum have to contact the Youth Welfare Office immediately. Furthermore, there are special procedures for unaccompanied minors applying for asylum at airports:
"If there are facilities available in the transit zone of the airport to accommodate children and young people, the asylum procedure can be conducted for minors from these facilities before they enter the federal territory.
However, unaccompanied asylum seekers entering the Federal Republic at Frankfurt Airport are often permitted to enter the federal territory after just a few days, as the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees is not always in a position to take a decision on the application for asylum within the statutory period of two days (German Bundestag 2014a, 2014b).
If there is no possibility of carrying out the asylum procedure at the entry airport, for instance, because there are no accommodation facilities for unaccompanied minors available or the BAMF does not have a branch office at the relevant airport, the foreigner declaring his or her intention to file an application for asylum and who has not entered Germany via an EU Member State is permitted to enter the federal territory so that the asylum procedure can be carried out."
I hope that this information helps to understand the procedure a bit better. Please feel free to reach out to us again if you need any further assistance!