Hello @Dark_Knight and welcome to our community!
I'm sorry to hear about the bad situation you are in.
In accordance with the Dublin III convention you are only allowed to apply for asylum in one European country. Even though Norway is not part of the EU they are working together which expands Dublin III rules to Norway (source in German language: https://www.nds-fluerat.org/leitfaden/4-der-bescheid-des-bundesamtes/41-unzulaessiger-asylantrag-die-dublin-ii-verordnung/
). So from my point of view it doesn't make a difference if you are in Germany, Spain, Italy or France at the moment because none of them will feel responsible for your case.
Yet still I'm pretty sure that the Norwegian government will not explicitly ask Germany to send you back. But it might happen that Germany will deport you on its own stating that they are not responsible for your case. To prevent that you can get a so called “Ausbildungsduldung” as you’ve been told. It grants you the right to stay for the time of an apprenticeship in an officially recognised profession. That’s why my suggestion would be to keep writing applications for apprenticeships. I know that this can be frustrating at some point, but hopefully the effort will pay off in the end.
Source (German language): https://www.proasyl.de/news/anspruch-auf-ausbildung-informationen-zur-neuen-rechtslage-fuer-geduldete/
In addition I will link @Marcel and @Steven . They are lawyers and might have a good idea how to handle your situation best.