Welcome to our Community!
In general: You need to be in Germany in person in order to apply for asylum. It is not possible to apply for it outside of Germany.
Concerning your universitary degree: There is a possibility to come to Germany as a skilled employee, but the requirements are quite strict (e.g. you need to have a job offer and your degree needs to be recognized as equivalent to German graduate degrees etc.). See the following link for detailed information about this so called "Blue Card":
And even though you have to file the application before you come to Germany (you can do this in an embacy or a consulate), the final procedure will only take place in Germany when you are here.
Feel free to ask further questions if anything remained unclear.