Welcome to the Wefugees Community and thank you for reaching out to us.
From my experience, it is not very unusual in the German asylum procedure that people have to wait a few months to receive the decision of the BAMF. During the pending asylum procedure, you hold a so-called "Aufenthaltsgestattung" which grants you to stay in Germany as long as the BAMF is assessing the application. It is not a visa or a residence permit.
Unfortunately, I have to agree with @kathy on your plans: I doubt that the authorites will simply hand out the passport without following where you are leaving to. As non-EU citizen (there are only a very few exceptions), you need to apply for a visa for the respective country. The "Aufenthaltsgestattung" in Germany does not allow you to travel freely within the EU. In case you are married, you may be able to apply for a family re-unification visa. A job visa could be another opportunity if you manage to get a job offer. You will need to check the individual requirements of that country and the visa category.
Sorry that I can not give you a more positive answer. I will also link two of our experts here: dear @mbeon-fardeen or @mbeon-ruth, can you give any advice on this case?
Please also don't hesitate to get back to us with any further questions.
All the best,