Welcome to the Wefugees Community and thank you for your question.
One requirement to get the Ausbildungsduldung is to prove your identity. So it is a normal procedure that the immigration office is asking for your passport. We also dicussed the topic in this thread, for instance. As you may also read there, if you are not fulfilling all the requirements - in this case you are not able to submit a passport - the issuing of the Ausbildungsduldung will be at the total discretion of the immigration office. I assume it will be quite hard to convince the authorities that you tried everything you can to organize a passport. If you can provide any other documents as proof of your identity it might help. I will link our dear @mbeon-Christine here as well. Am I right on this and is there anything you may want to add?
In any case, please don't hesitate to get back to us with any further questions.
All the best,