welcome at Wefugees and thank you for sharing your situation with us.
I can assure you that my colleagues at Caritas told you the truth and you've just signed a document about data protection.
All colleagues of MBE (migration counselling service for adults) follow extremely strict ethical guidelines. We are all obliged to cooperate with authorities if it is in the interest of our clients, but our Code of Conduct strongly forbids us to share any information which might be hazardous or harmful for our clients. E.g., we (at the Red Cross Munich) work accordingly to the RC Fundamental Principles (https://www.ifrc.org/who-we-are/vision-and-mission/the-seven-fundamental-principles/) and the AAA guidelines for interculturalists (http://ethics.americananthro.org/category/statement/), and all the other welfare organisations follow very similar or identical guidelines. I know of no case where a counsellor has ever shared harmful information with an authority, because that would be an absolute no-go situation and lead to immediate dismissal.
So I'd recommend you to call your counsellor and ask him to send you the document you signed. You'll recover your peace of mind immediately.
I hope my answers were helpful and I’ll be very pleased if you contact me again with further questions. I'm a member of the mbeon-staff and I‘ll be glad to guide over a longer period of time. mbeon is an online advisory service for migrants via the mbeon-app, which you can download on your smartphone for free. You'll find me in the mbeon-app under my location „München” and then my name “Frau Müller“ and get confidential one-to-one advice in a safe virtual room where nobody can read messages. For further information please visit www.mbeon.de.
Download for Android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=de.zone35.mbeon
Download for iOS: https://apps.apple.com/de/app/mbeon-messengerberatung/id1408795643