it is not prohibited by the German law to make such an asylum application. You will be asked about your whereabouts after leaving your country and you must explain, why you couldn't stay in Argentina. If you have a good reason (either it was impossible, like you had no chance to have a residence permit and could only stay illegally, or it was dangerous or too hard surviving there), then Argentina won't be considered a safe third country for you. Besides, you can only be deported to Argentina, if this country agrees to take you. which is mostly only the case, if you have a valid residence permit there and Germany can prove it.
Nevertheless, I have no idea, if you have a real chance to get asylum or some other kind of protection in Germany. It is well known how desastrous the economical situation in Venezuella is, but you must belong to a very vulnerable group to make it believable that you can't survive there. If you want to prove that you are in danger of political prosecution, you must have a very good evidence; moreover, you must be able to prove that this danger exists in the whole territory of your country (that you haven't got a so called internal alternative, just moving from danger within your country).
If I'm not mistaken, the only federal country in Germany which deals with asylum applications of Venezuela citizens, is Saxonia (Sachsen). So it it advisable to make contact to consulting organisations there, perhaps they have to do with this question and know more. For example, Flüchtlingsrat Sachsen (Refugee Council Saxonia). I found the following Mail-address on the Website: firstname.lastname@example.org