Thank you for sharing your situation with the Wefugee Community!
What exactly was the outcome at the court then? Did they decide to reject your asylum application and issue a "Duldung"? Normally, you are only holding an "Aufenthaltsgestattung" as long as your case is still pending. Maybe the judge was trying to tell you that you should integrate etc. to be able to apply for another residence permit in a few years as soon as you fulfill certain requirements. Check, for example, the residence permit according to section 25b of the German residence law. On the website I linked here, you will find the respective details and requirements.
I hope this helps and please get back to us if you want to discuss your questions further.
All the best,