Welcome to the Wefugees community and thank you for your question.
1.) Since you returned voluntarily there shouldn't be an entry ban for the Schengen area for you. If you fulfil the requirements, getting a visa should work.
2.) I don't think so. The EURODAC database is used amongst the Dublin states to find out whether an asylum seeker already got registered elsewhere. Since it's not possible to seek asylum in an embassy, it's not necessary for them to have access to this data. Also, applying for a visa is a different procedure than claiming asylum. As far as I know, EURODAC doesn't play a role in this case.
3.) You returned to your home country and stayed there for a year. Therefore Germany is not necessarily responsible for your case anymore and a new asylum claim in France might be successful. They can ignore the fact that you've already had a procedure in Germany in the past and start a new one (see the answer by Marcel in this thread: https://www.wefugees.de/102057/claim-asylum-for-second-time-in-eu?show=102057#q102057). I can't tell you though whether or not your asylum procedure is going to have a positive outcome.