Welcome to the Wefugees Community and thank you for reaching out to us.
For details on the requirements for a "Beschäftigungsduldung" please see Melina's answer in this thread. Moreover, you will find the respective section 60d of the German residence law if you follow this link (in German though).
Depending on your arrival-date in Germany, you will need to prove your identity until a certain point in the application process. The law is not explicitly referring to the passport as required document. However, most of the immigration offices will probably ask for it. If you don't hold a passport and you can prove your issues in getting one, they might also accept alternative documents showing your identity (your birth certificate, for instance).
I hope this helps and please get back to us with any further questions.
All the best,