if your health situation is really dangerous (because you have no chance to get proper medical treatment in your country or you won't be able to work and earn your living and won't have any support), you can consider a new asylum application which must be limited to a humanitarian deportation ban after §60. 5 or 7 AufenthG (Aliens Law) only - no application for international protection.
The situation, on which basis you make a new asylum application, must also be new. If you found out about your diagnosis as your court procedure was still pending, the right was was to inform the court about it, so that the court had to decide if this new reason is enough for giving you protection in Germany.
Anyway, you can start a new asylum procedure if you have a new proof of the changed conditions. In your case it can be a fresh medical attest or, for example, a fresh report about bad medical conditions in your country which demonstrates how dangerous your individual situation would be in case of return. It can be a report about difficulties in treatment of your disease. You must make a new application within 3 months after obtaining new information, in other case your application can be declared inadmissible.
The requirements for a medical certificate as a proof for a necessity of a deportation ban are very high. They are described in §60a AufenthG. They are the same as you need to get a Duldung because of your health situation.
Section 60a: Temporary suspension of deportation (Duldung)
(2c) It is assumed that the deportation is not precluded on health grounds. The foreigner must provide credible evidence of an illness which might interfere with deportation by submitting a qualifiedmedical certificate. As a rule, this medical certificate is to document in particular the factual circumstances on which the professional assessment was based, the method of establishing the facts, the specialist medical assessment of the illness (diagnosis), the severity of the illness, its Latin name or classification according to ICD 10 and the medical assessment of the probable consequences of the situation resulting from the illness. Medications needed to treat the illness must be listed along with their active ingredients under the names used in international practice.
(2d) The foreigner is required to submit the medical certificate referred to in subsection 2c immediately to the competent authority. If the foreigner fails to submit such a medical certificate immediately, the competent authority need not take into account the foreigner’s submissions regarding his or her illness, unless the foreigner was prevented, through no fault of his or her own, from obtaining such a certificate or there is other factual evidence for the existence of a life-threatening or serious illness which would be significantly worsened by deportation. If the foreigner submits a certificate and the authority then orders a medical examination, the authority is entitled not to take the reported illness into account if the foreigner does not comply with the order without sufficient reason. The foreigner is to be informed of the obligations and the legal consequences of any breach of these obligations
It is essential to discuss the requirements from 2c with your doctor so that he or she makes a detailed certificate. A short certificate consisting of two or three lines won't bring you much.
These requirement are also needed for a decision about Duldung on the basis of medical reasons. Therefore it is advisable always to provide your medical certificates to the Ausländerbehörde.
I'd recommend you to consult a good councelling center or, better, take a lawyer with an expertise in asylum law, before you make a decision about a new asylum application.