Thank you for sharing your questions with the Wefugees Community and for being such an active member.
Unfortunately, I can not provide any reliable answer regarding your question on the length of the asylum process. I just know, that it varies much from case to case. However, the government was publishing numbers on the average length of asylum procedures in Germany in the first two quarters of 2019. According to information on this website of the German Federal Parliament, a procedure will take about 6 months. But I must say, that I also know cases, in which people were waiting for 2 years or even more for results from the authorities (Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge/BAMF). That might also depend on your country of origin and internal processes. When I am correct, according to §1a Asylbewerberleistungsgesetz (law on social benefits for asylum-seekers), the authorities might sanction you, if you actually have a passport but not provide it to them. @alla_fka Am I right on this?
When you receive a negative answer by the BAMF and you want to make an appeal in court, you may be granted "Prozesskostenhilfe" (means that the state is paying a lawyer). As far as I know, the judge should see a chance of a success for you in court - otherwise they might deny it.
You could also apply for a "Beratungshilfeschein" at the local "Amtsgericht", in order to get free counselling by a lawyer (not support in court itself though).
I hope this helps and all the best,