nice to hear from you again.
We discussed similar questions here in the community in the past. Please take a look at the following links to get an overview of the topic:
To sum up the information given through the links above:
As soon as you get a positive result for your asylum process you should get a residence title and a passport. You can use said passport to travel more than 100 countries worldwide including most of the EU (the so called Schengen Space). You can stay there for 3 months at most - for longer stays you need a visa.
Concerning your specific situation:
It's a little bit more complicated since you are still in the asylum process. Therefore you haven't received a passport yet and you are not allowed to leave Germany. Within the first 3 months you are maybe even obliged to stay within a certain area of Germany ("Residenzpflicht").
As far as I can see you have to wait for the result of your asylum process. If you get a residence permit for 3 years then the rules that I summarized above apply.
With a Duldung you won't be allowed to leave Germany.
If you get subsidiary protection then you won't get a passport as well, but you can use your residence title in combination with a) the passport of your home country, or b) with a so called "Reiseausweis für Ausländer" to travel to other countries. Keep in mind that you might have to get a visa first.
I hope this answer was helpful for you. In case I missed some information I will link @Marcel and @Steven our great lawyers here on the platform so that they can add information if necessary.